Cross-linguistic Morphological Categories

Unitary Grammatical Function Hypothesis

IE Inflectional-Derivational Correlations

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The Unitary Grammatical Function Hypothesis claims that the same functions which appear in syntax (inflectional morphology) also determine the functional L-derivations. This is accomplished by investing deep structures with these functions before lexical insertion, then allowing both L-derivation and I-derivation to operate on them, as described in section 6 of the main text. LMBM assumes that a deep, categorial component is inevitable and that it is not a strictly syntactic component but rather a general grammatical component which feeds both the lexicon and syntax. Details are available in chapter 13 of Beard (1995). Those functions are listed in detail here here. They provide strong constraints on the semantics of inflectional and lexical morphology.
Below is a list of all the grammatical (category) functions of the PIE and contemporary IE Case system(s) alongside examples of L-derivations with the same functions. Examples are given for Serbo-Croatian; however, the corresponding Case for Sanskrit and preposition for English are given in bold face type in parenthesis. "Possessivity (Genitive : of) indicates that the possessor was marked by the Genitive in Sanskrit (thus probably in PIE), and in English it is indicated by the preposition of.
The Serbo-Croatian grammatical marking for the given function is provided in brackets beside the Serbo-Croatian example. Since Sanskrit did not have a Possessional (Qualitative) Genitive, the Greek (Gk) is given; presumably it was an PIE function. The table does not imply a perfect correlation between the functions of Serbo-Croatian, Sanskrit Case, and English adpositions, only an overlap in the relevant one.
These functions were studied across 98 languages around the world. A sample language was taken from all language families (stocks). For those language families containing widely disparate subgroups, e.g. English, French, and Russian, a typical sample of each subgroup was studied. These functions appear to be the same across all languages covered; that is, all languages selected their morphological functions from this set of functions and none of the languages surveyed contained any other functions.
The categories are divided into (1) primary inflectional functions (those more commonly marked by case endings alone), (2) secondary inflectional functions (those more commonly marked by case + adposition), and (3) tertiary prepositional functions (adverbal prepositions without corresponding L-derivations). The primary functions were those most likely to be marked by case ending alone. The secondary functions were most likely marked by case ending plus an adposition. The tertiary functions are never marked by case ending alone and the adpositions that mark them are highly likely to be synonyms of other adpositions.

I. Primary Inflectional Functions

1. Agent (Ergative: Not in IE Languages) (Ergative languages have these)
2. Patient (Absolutive: Not in IE Languages)(Ergative languages have these)
3. Subject (Nominative: Word Order)
covek radi
"the-man works"
Subjective Nominals
rad-nik "worker"
4. Object (Accusative: Word Order)
zatvorili su čovek-a [Acc]
"they-imprisoned the-man"
Objective Nominals
5. Possessivity (Genitive: of)
plave očii čovek-a [Gen]
"the-blue eyes of-the-man"
Possessive Adjective
čovek-ov-e plave oči
"the-man's blue eyes"
6. Possession ((Gk) Genitive: with/of)
čovek plav-ih o-čiju [Gen]
"a-man with-blue eyes"
Possessional Adjective
plav-o-ok čovek
"blue-eyed man"
7. Measure (Accusative: Word Order)
idemo pet kilometara [Acc]
"we-are-going five kilometers
Mensurative Nominals
"kilometrage" ;
8. Material (Genitive: (out) of)
sto od hrast-a [od+Gen]
"a-table from oak"
Material Nominals
hrast-ov sto
"oak(en) table"
9. Partitivity (Genitive: of)
drvo od hrast-a [od+Gen]
"wood from an-oak"
meso od jagnj-et-a [od+Gen]
"meat from a-lamb"
Partitive Nominals
"oak (wood)"
"lamb (meat)"
10. Distinction (Ablative: than)
brž-e od konj-a [od+Gen]
"faster than a-horse"
[Specialized usage:
determined by
comparative adjectives]
11. Absolute (Ablative: Word Order) [Sentence Adverbs]
12. Means (Instrumental: by/with)
žanje kos-om [Instr]
"he-reaps with-a-scythe"
Modalic Nominals
"reap-er" (machine)
13. Route (Instrumental: by/via)
ploviti mor-em [Instr]
"travel by-sea"
Vialic Adjective
mor-sk-a (plovidba)
"sea (voyage)"
14. Manner (Ace/Instr: like)
živeti rob-om [Instr; kao+Nom]
"to-live like a-slave"
Similitudinal Adjective
15. Ession (Acc/Instr: as)
raditi kao lekar [kao+Nom]
"to-work as a-doctor"
Essive Adjective
"doctor-Iy, medical"
16. Duration (Instrumental: (for))
čitav-o let-o smo radili [Acc]
"the-whole summer we worked"
Durative Adjective
let-nj-i raspust
"summer holidays"
17. Iteration ( ... ?: (on) ... s)
nedelj-om idemo (u crkvu) [Instr]
"(on) Sunday(s) we go (to church)"
Iterative Adjective
nedelj-n-a (misa)
"Sunday (mass)"
18. Accordance (Ablative: by)
po zakon-u [po+Loc]
"according to the law"
Accordant Nominals
19. Purpose (Dative: to/for)
karte za igr-anj-e [za+Acc]
"cards for playing"
(platiti) za poštu [za+Acc]
"(pay) for the mail"
Purposive Nominals
igr-ać-e kart-e
"playing cards"
20. Exchange (? : for)
za pet dinara [za+Acc]
"(buy the book) for 5 dinars"
   . ? .
   . ? .
21. Cause (Ablative: from/out of)
pocrvenio je od stid-a [Various Ps]
"he blushed from shame"
Causative Nominals
   . ? .
   . ? .
22. Sociation (saha+Instrumental: with)
raditi sa covek-om [sa+Instr]
"to-work with a-person"
Sociative Noun
23a. Location (Place: at/in/on)
raditi u pekarnic-i [u+Loc]
"to-work at a-bakery"
Locative Nouns
23b. Location (Time: at/in/on)
u noc, u večer) [u+Acc]
"at night", "in the evening"
Locative Nouns
24. Goal (Accusative/Locative: to)
voz za Beograd [ulna/za+Ace]
"train for Beograde"
Goal Nominals
beograd-sk-i voz
"Belgrade train"
25. Origin (Ablative: from/of)
čovek iz Amerik-e [iz+Gen]
"a-person from America"
voz iz Beograd-a [iz+Gen]
"train from Belgrade"
Originative Nominals
"(an) American"
beograd-sk-i voz
"Belgrade train"

II. Secondary Inflectional Functions

26. Inession (Locative: in)
raditi u pekarnic-i [u + Loc]
"to-work at a-bakery"
Locative Nouns
27. Adession (Locative: on)
raditi na ulic-i [na + Loc]
"to-work on the-street"
Locative Nouns
"work site"
28a. Anteriority (Place: agre+Gen: in front of)
pred sob-om [pred+Instr]
"in-front-of the-room"
Anterior Nominals
28b. Anteriority (Time: pūrva+Abl: before
pred rat [pred + Acc]
"before the-war"
Antecedent Nominals
29a. Posteriority (Place: pascat+Abl: behind)
za gor-ama [za+Instr]
"behind the-mountains"
Posterior Nominals
za-gor-sk-i, za-gor-j-e
"transmontane (region)"
29b. Posteriority (Time: parena+Abl: after)
posle rat-a [posle+Gen]
"after the-war"
Subsequential Nominals
30. Superession (upari+Gen: over)
nad zem-lj-om [nad+Instr]
"above the-ground"
Superessive Nominals
31. Subession (adhas+Acc: under)
pod vod-om [pod+Instr]
"under the-water"
Subessive Nominals
32. Transession (adhi+Acc: across)
preko mor-a [preko+Gen]
"across the-ocean"
Transessive Nominals
preko-mor-sk-i, prekomor-j-e
33. Intermediacy iantar+Acc: between)
među narod-ima [medu+Instr]
"between nations"
Intermediative Nominals
34. Prolation (anu+Acc: along)
duž Dunav-a [duz+Gen]
"along the-Danube"
Prolative Nominals (anu+Acc: along)
po-dunav-ski, po-dunav-lje
"Danubian (Basin)"
35. Proximity (abhyiise+Gen: by/near/at)
pri mor-u [pri+ Dat)
"by the-sea"
Proximate Nominals
pri-mor-sk-i, pri-mor-j-e
"coastal (region)"
36. Opposition (prati+Acc: against)
protiv avion-a [protiv+Gen]
"against aircraft"
Oppositive Adjective
37. Perlation (tiras+Acc: through)
kroz sum-u [kroz+Acc]
pro-laz "through the-woods"
Perlative Nominals
(deverbal nominalization)
38. Circumession (pari+Acc: around)
oko kuć-e [oko+Gen]
"around the house"
"collar" (around the neck)
41. Distribution
po deset dinara (po + Loc]
"ten dinars apiece"
dvudinarno (pivo)
"two-dinar (beer)
43. Privation (ré, vinii + Inst: without)
[Negative [Possession]]
bez vod-e [bez + Gen]
"without water"
Privative Adjective
"waterless, arid"
39. Termination (? : up to)
do kuć-e [do+Gen]
"as far as the house"
   . ? .
   . ? .
40. Concession
uprkos covek-u [uprkos + Oat]
"despite the man"
   . ? .
   . ? .
42. Exception ( ? )
[Negative Sociation]
osim covek-a [osim/izuzev + Gen]
"except the man"
   . ? .
   . ? .
   . ? .
44. Thematicity (pari + Ace: about)
(misliti) o kuc-i [o + Loe]
"(think) about the house"
   . ? .
   . ? .

III. Tertiary Prepositional Functions

kod "at someone's (chez)" mesto "instead of"
sred "amid"radi "for the sake of"
zbog "thanks to"prema "toward, opposite"

English Tertiary Prepositions
atop amid alongside but since until
astride among save opposite including during
aboard beside except near toward besides

minimal RBeard LMBM Categories Performance Semantics right_fleuret